Last week I shared a list of currently marketed products for heartworm prevention. The last two I mentioned were Trifexis and ProHeart 6. If you do a Google search with either of these search terms, you will find a mix of official websites for the products, sites selling the products, and sites with negative press about the products. You don’t have to read for too long to realize the situation is complicated and people have taken sides. Let’s start with some history about Trifexis. [Read more…]
It’s March, and although we still have a lot of snow on the ground here in the Northeast, soon the mosquitoes will be buzzing. In addition to making us bumpy and itchy, mosquitoes carry diseases. For dogs and cats, the threat is heartworm, which is now found in all fifty states. The mosquito carries the immature form of the worm, which is transferred into a dog or cat’s bloodstream during the bite. It takes 6-7 months after the mosquito bites a dog for the worms to mature to adults, at which point they start producing the infective form called microfilariae. By 3-4 months after the mosquito bite, immature worms have reached the lungs, and they will eventually be forced into the right ventricle of the heart. [Read more…]
Over the past month I’ve been writing about aging changes and ailments that affect our senior pets. I thought I’d wrap up this topic (for now) my offering you a checklist that you can use to objectively evaluate how your dog or cat is doing. It’s something I would encourage you to use every six months or so, because things can change fairly quickly. Remember, 6 months in a dog or cat’s time is like 3-4 years in our lives! [Read more…]
Earlier this week we covered mobility issues in senior pets and how we can modify our environment to assist them. Today I want to focus on medications, and supplements that are commonly used to alleviate pain and discomfort in senior pets. Broad categories of treatment include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioid drugs, injectable drugs, and supplements (sometimes called nutraceuticals). [Read more…]
“Doc, Molly can’t get up the steps anymore.”
“Hunter always used to sleep in bed with us but he can’t jump up there now.”
“Sasha is really stiff after she gets up from a nap, even with the new bed we bought for her.”
It helps to look at pets’ ages in comparison to ours. Cats and dogs under 20 pounds are considered senior at age 8 and geriatric at 11-12. Dogs 21-50 pounds are senior at age 7 and geriatric at age 11. Dogs 51-120 pounds are senior at age 6 and geriatric at age 66. Dogs over 120 pounds are senior at age 4 and geriatric at age 7. These are guidelines and may not hold exactly true for each individual. If you think about a person you know (or even yourself if the shoe fits) who is age 60, chances are good he or she has experienced aches and pains in multiple joints, and may even had surgery on a knee or a hip.
Pets experience degenerative joint disease (DJD), which occurs due to stress over time on joints. It may be hastened by the presence of an old injury or due to abnormal shape of the joint (hip dysplasia is an example). Degenerative joint disease is the number one cause of chronic pain in pets. Many cases of DJD are not surgical, so we have to focus on preventing further damage and alleviating pain and discomfort. This often involves a combination of supplements, drugs, physical therapy, modifying the home, and use of products to assist the pet in moving around. Later this week I’ll be writing about ways to alleviate pain in older pets. For now, let’s focus on physical therapy, home modifications, and mobility assistance.
PT for Pets
It may seem a bit crazy to give physical therapy to dogs and cats, but it really can be beneficial for them and is something you can learn to do at home. Because older pets often aren’t up moving around as much, their muscles, tendons, and ligaments tend to stiffen. So while Fido is laying in his bed, do some gentle flexing and extending of his front and back legs. Use your fingertips to knead into the thigh and back muscles. If you have observed a certain body part seems to be worse than others, you can apply alternating cold/heat to that area (I suggest no more than 5-10 minutes of each, and never leave a pet with a heating pad unattended!!). For dogs with severe issues, you may want to seek care from a veterinarian who specializes in rehabilitation (see American Association of Rehabilitation Veterinarians). Rehab vets use many tools, such as underwater or land treadmill, laser therapy, chiropractic, therapeutic ultrasound, and other therapies to help pets.
Home Modifications and Mobility Assistance
Slipping on the non-carpeted floor seems to be a huge issue for pets who are unsteady on their legs. Providing traction by adding throw rugs with rubber grip on the back is a simple (and reversible) solution. Some dogs will accept wearing booties to improve their traction. Navigating steps is another problem. If there are just a few steps leading outside, a non-slip ramp (either purchased or home-made) may be an option. If there is no way to avoid steps inside the home, your dog may benefit from wearing a harness that allows you to provide support to the back end while walking. There are many brands available, and I have heard good things about the “Help ‘Em Up Harness.” A ramp or small step stool can be used to help your dog or cat get onto the bed or couch. I’ve talked to a number of pet owners who’ve invested in a new bed for their senior dog or cat. What I’ve heard is that sometimes they use them, and sometimes they don’t. One thing to consider is that while a big plush squishy bed might sound appealing to lay in, it could be hard for your pet to get out of. A memory foam bed offers a firmer platform yet still conforms to the body as your pet lays on it.
One thing I’m sure of, people are ingenious when it comes to making things easier for their senior pets! Leave a comment and share with others what you have done at your house for your dog or cat. Have a great Monday!
According to my blog calendar, I am supposed to be writing today about skin issues in senior pets. It’s a common problem and an important topic, but I will have to cover it another day. The only thing circling in my brain right now is some very special dogs and cats who went to the Rainbow Bridge since last Friday. I was with them when they left us; in fact I was the instrument in their leave-taking. [Read more…]
If only we could politely decline the lumps and bumps that so often show up on our dogs and cats as they age! Last week I wrote about cloudy eyes and how frequently pet owners ask me if their pets are going blind. Questions about lumps are probably just as frequent. The most important take-away from this post is this: if your pet develops a lump under the skin, in any location on the body, please have your vet check it out, preferably sooner than later! Your vet will be able to determine if the lump is benign (harmless) or cancerous, usually by performing a test called fine needle aspirate. This test can be done in the office with your pet fully awake and only involves a tiny prick of a needle to obtain cells from the lump. [Read more…]
Among the most common questions I am asked by pet owners is, “My dog’s eyes look cloudy. Do you think my dog is going blind?” It’s a good question, and the answer can be complicated because there are several structures in the eye that can develop cloudiness. To start, it’s helpful to know a few things about how the eye is put together. On the surface of the eye is the cornea. In ophthalmology class in veterinary school, I remember being amazed at the remarkable architecture and function of the cornea. [Read more…]
Funny headline, right? But so true. The American Dental Association says that for people, the cornerstone of a healthy mouth is regular teeth-brushing (twice daily) and flossing (once daily). Dental disease is mostly preventable with daily cleaning and regular visits to the dentist. Poor mouth hygiene has been linked to serious medical issues, including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and pneumonia. These health conditions are especially concerning for older adults. If we do a good job of keeping our teeth clean, we can expect them to last our entire lifetime. So what’s the situation in our pets? [Read more…]
Now that we’ve covered the core vaccines for dogs, let’s discuss the non-core vaccines. According to the 2011 AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines, these include Borellia (Lyme), Leptospira, Bordetella, Canine Influenza, and Canine Parainfluenza vaccines. Deciding whether your dog should get any one of them depends largely on his or her risk factors for exposure to the bacteria or virus. Below is a brief description of each organism and the related disease. [Read more…]